Upon Hanover street, Major Hiram Brown, built his present house upon lot 97; on 98 Governor Samuel Bell built the dwelling house now known as the "Gov. Bell House;" on 99 the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company built the house for the Agent of the Stark Mill; now occupied by Phinehas Adams; on 112 was a story and a half wooden shop; on 113, D. A. Bunton, built the two story house owned by E. W. Harrington; on 134, the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company built the house now owned by Charles Richardson, Esq.; and on Lot 135, the First Congregational Society built the Hanover Street Church.
These buildings thus particularly described were built in 1839; and at the close of that year, there were no other buildings upon the lands sold by the company, save those west of Elm street connected with the corporations, and certain old houses belonging to the farms or lots purchased by the company. Of these there were standing in the present thick settled and business parts of the city but six houses; one known as the "Philip Stevens house," nearly upon the site upon which is now the Company's house, between Mechanic and Water streets, occupied by Cyrus W. Baldwin and A. M. Chapin, Esqrs.; which house was moved upon Bridge street opposite Tremont Square, and a second story added to it by Mr. Charles Clough, by whom it is now owned; a second house known as the "Gamble House" which stood [sic stood?] near the east end of the old Amoskeag Bridge, upon the old river road, just south of its junction with the Derry road, and which was moved upon North Chestnut street, and now belongs to the heirs of the late J. B. Congdon; two small houses near the Gamble house one north and the other south of it, and both upon the old river road, the one north of the Gamble house having been burned a few years since, and the one south of it having been moved upon the corner of Lowell and Chestnut streets, and owned by Mr. Jacob Peavy; a fifth house, situated upon what is now called Orange street, a little west of north Chestnut street, belonging to the heirs of the late Samuel P. Kidder, and torn down when Orange street was graded; and a sixth house known as the "Barren House" which stood on Granite street, just opposite the Freight Depot of the Concord Railroad, and which now stands at the corner of Granite and Union streets.
In 1839 the Amoskeag Manufacturing company built for the Stark Mills a second Mill of 8000 spindles, a short distance north of their first Mill, known as the north wing Of "Stark Mills No. 1." The machinery for the first Mill was built in Lowell, and for the second one in Springfield.
The Amoskeag Manufacturing Company still continued their improvements upon an extensive scale, according to their original plan, and to meet the demand for machinery, in 1840, they erected their Machine Shop, upon a section of the lower Canal.
The Machine Shop was put in operation with the intention of furnishing the machinery for the mills, to be erected in this place, as well as to answer orders from abroad. In 1841, the Amoskeag Company built two mills known as "Nos. 1 and 2 Amoskeag New Mills." These mills were each 5 stories, 166 feet in length, by 50 feet in width. No. 1, contains 8,960 spindles, and 234 looms; and No. 2, contains 8832 spindles, and 250 looms.
In 1842, they built a Foundry, and in 1848, built the "New Foundry," larger and upon improved principles. The same year they built a Grist and Saw Mill upon a privilege opposite the "Fishing Islands," a few rods below the site of the Whittaker Saw-Mill.
In 1843, the Stark Mills having determined to enlarge their establishment, the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company put in for them a centre piece, connecting their two former mills, consisting of a front of 100 feet, of four stories, with a pediment end; surmounted with a cupola; forming with the two former mills, one entire building in the form of a cross; and in 1848, another large class mill was added, known as "No. 2, Stark Mills."
In 1843 and 4, the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company built another new mill, known as "No. 3, Amoskeag New Mill" capable of containing 20,475 spindles and 545 looms; 5 stories in height, and 444 feet in length, by 65 feet in width. This is operated on their own account.
In 1839, a new Company was incorporated by the name of the "Manchester Mills," with a capital of $1,000,000. This name has since been changed to the "Merrimack Mills," and subsequently to the "Manchester Print Works," and the capital increased to $1,800,000. Their object is the manufacture and printing of Mouslin de Laines. To carry out the object, the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company built for them in 1845 a mill of the largest class; in 1846, a large Printery facing upon Granite street, and near to the Granite Bridge; and in 1850, another large mill. These mills are upon the lower canal, just north of Granite street, and connected with them are 94 boarding houses.
In 1847, the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company built another large mill on their own account, known as "No. 4, Amoskeag New Mills," and of capacity for 24,576 spindles, and 630 looms, being 6 stories in height, and 260 feet in length, by 60 in width. In 1848 and 9, they built a new Machine Shop, and commenced the manufacture of Locomotives which is being prosecuted with energy and abundant success.
In 1855 and 6, they built on their own account another mill, known as "No. 5, Amoskeag New Mills," 6 stories in height, 220 feet in length, by 60 feet in width, and containing 20,000 spindles, and 460 looms.
This company has still hydraulic power for many more mills, and will build as occasion requires, there being many more eligible mill sites both above and below the present mills. When completed according to the original plan, the mills, warehouses, and boarding houses, extending on either side of the canals and railroad for a distance of a mile and a half, flanked on each side with a dense mass of public houses, stores, shops, and dwelling houses, and containing a population of fifty thousand inhabitants, Manchester must be the handsomest Manufacturing city in the world.
The works of the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company may be divided into five departments.
And now, a more particular discription of the various manufacturing departments, connected with what is known as the Corporations, will be given. And first of the
- The Real Estate and Building department. Of this department Robert Read, Esq, was Agent until January 1852, when E. A. Straw, Esq., the present efficient Engineer of the Company, succeeded him. This department has the general superintendence of surveys, sales of land, building factories, boarding houses, &c. The Clerk is Joseph Knowlton, Esq.
- The Amoskeag New Mills, consisting of five mills, numbered 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. David Gillis, Esq., is Agent of this department, and Charles Richardson. Esq., was Clerk, until 1854, when he was succeeded by Charles L. Richardson, who continues as clerk at the present time.
- The Machine Shop. This department includes the old and new Foundries, Boiler Shop, Forge Shop, Tank Shop, Paint Shop, Pattern house, and Storehouse. Cyrus W. Baldwin Esq., is the Agent, and Justus D. Watson, is Clerk.
- This department includes the Hooksett Factory, eight miles up the river, at Hooksett, engaged in the Manufacture of Mouslin de Laines; runs 8000 spindles, and is under the Superintendence of Stephen Ballard.
- This department includes the mills and real estate at Amoskeag Village, in Goffstown; since the burning of the Bell mill in 1847, but little business has been done at this place. A mill for the manufacture of Batting is kept in operation, but the buildings, including counting room, and most of the boarding houses, have been rented to Boyd, & Corey, who are extensively engaged in the manufacture of shoes.
The machine Shop of the Amoskeag company, unpretending in appearance; and entirely out of sight of all passers by, and others even, unless led to enter its yard upon business, or from curiosity, formerly attracted little attention, it being merely an appendage to the company's factory operations. Yet it ever has been an establishment of importance, using immense quantities of raw material, turning off a great amount of machinery, and giving employment to a large number of workmen; and now has not only become a most important part of the Amoskeag company's establishment, but has gained a world wide reputation for the excellency of its machinery.
The first machine shop, known as the "old Machine Shop," was built in 1840 upon the lower canal, as before suggested. This shop is 260 feet in length, 36 in width, and three stories high. In 1842, the Company erected an extensive Foundry, before this having obtained their castings at Chelmsford. This shop answered all the purposes of the company, until 1848, when they built another machine shop and foundry, now known as the "new Machine Shop" and "new Foundry." This machine shop is 260 feet in length, 40 feet in width and three stories high, and the foundry is 120 in length, 80 in width, and one story in height. At this time, the company commenced the manufacture of locomotives--and the experiment succeeding big beyond expectation, they have from time to time, extended their works; adding a "Boiler Shop," in 1852, 200 feet in length, 40 feet in width, a "Tank Shop," 200 feet in length, 25 in width; a "Forge Shop," 200 feet in length and 36 feet in width; a "Paint Shop," 84 feet in length, 40 feet in width, and all one story in height; a fire proof "Pattern House," 100 feet in length, 30 feet in width and three stories in height;--and a "Store House" and "Setting up Shop," 250 feet in length and 40 feet in width, a part 2 stories in height, and a part one story in height.
The first locomotive, the Etna, was built in 1849 for the Northern Railroad, since which time the business has so increased, that they now build 60 a year, turning out more than one a week. The last six built were for the Michigan Central Railroad and were numbered 212 to 218 inclusive, and they have orders on hand for twelve or fourteen more.
Here some 60 locomotives are manufactured every year, averaging a price of $8,750 each, or $525,000 in the gross. The locomotives weigh from 20 to 30 tons each and are for home use, the Western Railroads and the Canadas. Besides, the company annually manufactures cotton machinery sufficient for a mill of 20,000 spindles. Turbine wheels are also a prominent
feature, of which they produce a large number and variety each year, ranging in power from that of 20, to that of 300 horse power. Several other branches of manufacture are carried on, but these are subsidiary to those already enumerated, There are 68 tenements belonging to the company, which are occupied as boarding houses, for the men in their employ. These latter number some five hundred and includes some of the most respectable citizens of Manchester.
There are consumed at these works, every year, 2000 tons of pig iron, 1000 tons of bar iron and steel, 150 tons of copper, 75 tons of brass and malleable castings, 300 tons of boiler iron, 600 tons of Lehigh coal, 600 tons of Cumberland, (English) coal, 500 bushels of charcoal, 4000 gallons of oil, and 1200 cords of wood.
The average sum paid as wages, per month, is $12,000, which, among the workmen, is distributed at the rate of from $40 to 75 per month. Some men average more than the latter sum.
The principal articles manufactured are locomotive and stationary steam engines, boilers, cotton and woolen carding, spinning and weaving machinery, heavy tools, turbine wheels, and mill work generally; and heavy castings are furnished by the company to order.
The first Agent of the Machine Shop, was William Burke, Esq. He continued in office until 1847, when he resigned, to take charge of the Machine shop in Lowell, Mass., and was succeeded by 0. W. Bailey, Esq. Mr. Bailey resigned in Jan. 1855, to take charge of the Manchester Locomotive Works, and was succeeded by Cyrus W. Baldwin, Esq., the present Agent.
THE STARK MILLS.
The corporation known as "The Stark Mills," was incorporated in 1838, with a capital of $1,000,000, and was organized by the choice of
NATHAN APPLETON, President,
This company put the first Cotton Mill in operation on the east side of the Merrimack in this city. This Mill was built for them by the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, in the Summer and Fall of 1838, the machinery for the same having been built in Lowell. It went into operation the first of 1839, John A. Burnham, Esq., taking the charge of the same as Agent in January 1839. This mill was 4 stories high, 48 ft. wide, by 157 long. was situated upon the upper canal, and contained 8000 spindles, and constitutes the south wing of what is now known as "Stark Mills No. 1."
WM. AMORY, Treasurer,
GEO. W. KIMBALL, Clerk.
|NATHAN APPLETON, }
GEO. W. LYMAN, }
WILLARD SAYLES, }
FRANCIS C. LOWELL, }
WM. APPLETON, }
WM. AMORY, }
SAMUEL HENSHAW, }
In the summer of 1839, the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company built for the Stark Mills another mill of 8000 spindles, 4 stories high, 48 feet wide, by 157 feet long, and located a few rods north of their first mill, and which is now the north wing of "Stark Mills No. 1." The machinery for this mill was built at Springfield, Mass.
In 1843, this company enlarged their operations, by having put in for them, a centre piece, connecting their two former mills, consisting of a front of 100 feet, of 4 stories, and a pediment end surmounted with a cupola; forming with the two former mills one entire building in the form of a cross, 48 feet wide, by 414 in length, and adding 5400 spindles to their former number.
In November, 1847, J. A Burnham, Esq., resigned the Agency of the Stark Mills, and was succeeded in the office by Phinehas Adams, Esq., the present Agent. Mr. Adams had been Agent of the old "Amoskeag Mills," upon the west side of the river.
In 1848, this company erected another first class mill, five stories high, 220 feet in length, and fifty feet in width, and containing 19564 spindles. This mill is located a few rods north of their former mill, and is known as "Stark Mills, No.2." Upon the completion of this mill, this company operated machinery as follows;
In No. 1 Mill, 21400 spindles, and
Manufacturing 17,000,000 yards of sheetings and drillings per annum.
662 looms upon sheetings, and drillings.
In No. 2 Mill, 19564 spindles, and
560 looms upon sheetings and drillings,
On the 16th day of March, 1850, a destructive fire broke out in No. 1 Mill of this corporation, which destroyed the upper story of the north wing, (the second mill built,) and did more or less injury to the machinery in that wing, and the rest of the building.
Upon fitting this mill in running order again, this company commenced the manufacture of bags, on looms invented and patented by Cyrus W. Baldwin, Esq. These bags are manufactured whole, and without seams, and are known as "Seamless bags," and are the best article of the kind in the market.
Under this new arrangement, their operations are as follows.
In No. 1 Mill, 51420 spindles, and
On the 1st day of July, 1853, Geo. W. Tilden, Esq., resigned the office of Pay Master, to this corporation, having held the office since June 1839, fourteen years and one month. Mr. Tilden was succeeded in his office by William B. Webster Esq.
300 looms for sheetings drillings and ducks.
260 looms for bags.
In No. 2 Mill, 19564 spindles, and
550 looms upon sheetings and drillings.
They manufacture Sheetings, Drilling; Ducks and Bags
They employ 200 males, and 950 females.
Number of Tenements, 66.
Pay at the mills, $30,000 per month.
Consume annually 1,000,000 cubic feet of Gas.
5,880 gallons of Oil.
75 tons of Starch.
1000 tons of Coal.
6,000,000 lbs of Cotton.
Manufacture annually 2,080,000 (2 bush.) bags.
" " 8,000,000 yds sheeting.
The officers for 1856, are
NATHAN APPLETON, President.
The Stark Mills are under most excellent management, their affairs are conducted in a quiet manner, and in spite of disaster, they are doing a lucrative business, their goods commanding ready sales, and their stock standing well on 'change.
WM. AMORY, Treasurer.
PHINEHAS ADAMS, Clerk
|NATHAN APPLETON, }
DAVID SEARS, }
WM. APPLETON, }
WM. AMORY, }
GEO, W. LYMAN, }
FRANKLIN H. STORY. }
AMOSKEAG NEW MILLS.
The department of the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, devoted exclusively to the manufacture of cotton goods, has become one of great importance, although in the incipient stages of the company, their operations in real estate, in the manufacture of machinery, and in preparations for other companies seem to have overshadowed this department. Still, however, this, the primary object of the company, has been all the while making steady, and permanent progress. And it is understood, that this department, now including five large mills, has been built entirely from the earnings of the company, besides occasional handsome dividends.
Their mills are designated by their numbers, applied according to their precedence in construction, as thus; No.1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, Amoskeag New Mills. Nos. 1, and 2, were built in 1840 and 1841. They were built after the Lowell plan, and calculated for 8000 spindles each. They are each five stories in height, and 166 feet in length, by 50 feet in width. They were set in operation in 1841. It was thought that there were superior advantages in a large class of mills, and accordingly in 1843 and 1844, they built one of the largest class, being three stories in height, 444 feet in length, by 65 feet in width, and calculated for 20,000 spindles, and 500 looms. No. 3, mill was put in operation in 1844. In 1847, and 1848, they built No. 4, a first class mill, being six stories in height, 260 feet in length, by 60 feet in width, and calculated for 25000 spindles, and 600 looms. This was put in operation in 1848. In 1855 and 1856 No. 5 was built, being also a first class mill, six stories in height, 222 feet in length, by 60 feet in width, and calculated for 20,000 spindles, and 500 looms. This mill went into operation in 1856.
The capacity of the mills is thus;
The annual consumption of cotton is 9,600,000 lbs. The amount of cloth made 22,500,000 yds., annually, or 67,000 daily, equal to 38 miles per day, consisting of
Tickings, various qualities.
There are 109 Tenements used for boarding houses, and overseers, tenements.
Drillings, various qualities.
No. of Females employed, 2500
No. of Males, 700
Amount paid out at Mills, $40,000 per month.
A Savings Bank is connected with these mills for the benefit of those employed by the Company; amount on deposit, 164,000,00 interest at the rate of 5 per ct.
Among the articles extensively used at the mills, are
9000 galls. of oil. Gas is introduced throughout the mills.
At the World's Fair, of 1851, holden in London, the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, placed on exhibition samples of the goods manufactured by them, consisting of Sheetings, Drillings, Cotton Flannels and Tickings. This was literally, "carrying coals to New Castle." Thus exposing their fabricks [sic] in the great commercial mart of manufacturing England, and asking comparison of material and manufacture, savored somewhat of presumption; but going upon the principle so briefly set forth by Patch, the Yankee diver, "that some things can be done as well as others," this Yankee company did it, and challenged comparison of their fabrics, with those of Europe. The Jurors who were to make the comparison were one half Englishmen, and the other half from different nations in Europe, except one alone from the United States. The Jury thus constituted, awarded the Prize medal of the Exhibition to the "Amoskeag Manufacturing Company," for the best articles in class 11, at the World's Fair, and they awarded no other medal to Exhibitors in that class. This is a high but well merited honor.
350,000 lbs of Starch.
150,000 lbs, of Drugs.
5000 Cords of Wood
1000 tons of Coal,
3000 bush. Charcoal.
The medal is of bronze, about 2 1-2 inches in diameter, and 1-4 of an inch thick. Its execution is [m]ost exquisite. On one side are busts in alto of Victoria and Prince Albert. Supporting the busts and as if a part of their drapery, are two dolphins, emblematic of the mutual love of the royal pair; while in the rear is the trident of Neptune, shadowing forth that England claims to be mistress of the seas, but evidently with its handle broken, doubtless prophetic of the about to be established fact, that if "Brittannia rules the waves;" "America" would
"---walk the waters like a thing of life,"
and come out winner as against the world!
On the reverse are six figures and various other curious designs. In the centre is Industry, upon "bended knee," receiving the crown from the hands of Brittannia seated upon a throne supported by a trident and various mechanical implements. The standing figures are representatives of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America! Europa, at the left of the group has a sceptre in her left hand resting upon her arm; Asia stands next to her, with her right hand upon the shoulder of Industry; Africa is next, an Elephants head projecting from above her ebon curls; while at the right stands America, with plume and bow, her Indian reserve completely overcome by the interest of the ceremony. The drapery and ornaments of all the figures are appropriate in device and excellent in execution. The figures upon the dress of Industry, are so many bees, characteristic emblems, and of such exquisite workmanship, as when seen through a glass, found to be exact counterparts of the insects they are intended to represent! In the rear of the group is a bust of Flaxman, the sculptor; at its right an urn; beneath is a bale of goods, a cog-wheel, and other implements, emblems of the mechanic arts, commerce and the like.
In a word every thing about this superb medal is most perfect in design and execution. The company may well feel justly proud of their works, the products of which, have received from European Judges, the award of the Prize Medal of the Industrial Exhibition of all Nations!
In addition to the Sheetings, Flannels, Tickings, Denims, &c., for which the Prize Medal was awarded, and for which they have become noted throughout the country, they manufacture every conceivable variety of cottons, that can answer the wants, or meet the tastes of a varying community, for dress or covering; many of them of the most exquisite imitation of the finest linens, both in pattern and finish.
This is a most desirable result to all classes of the community, and it is gratifying that the enterprise of this establishment so perseveringly and skillfully directed towards the accomplishment of such a result, has been completely crowned with success, and that this success has not only been acknowledged by the best judges in the old world; but that in the new, it commands not only admiration, but what is still better, ready sales.
MANCHESTER PRINT WORKS.
This establishment includes mills for the manufacture of Mouslin de Laines, and Print Cloths, and Print Works for printing these manufactures.
The Act of Incorporation was originally granted in 1839 under the name of "Manchester Mills," with a capital stock of $1,000,000. In 1847, this corporation became merged in one under the name of "Merrimack Mills," with a capital stock of $1,500,000. This change took place under the impression that the charter of the "Merrimack Mills," was more liberal in its provisions. But in 1851, the name was altered by an act of Legislature to "Manchester Print Works," and again in 1852, its capital was increased to $1,800,000.
The first mill was built in 1845. It was 440 feet in length, 60 feet in width and 4 stories in height, besides the basement and attic. It contained thirty thousand spindles and seven hundred and seventy-eight looms. The second mill was built in 1850, was 324 feet in length, 60 feet in width, and five stories in height, besides basement and attic. It contained 20,000 spindles and 600 looms.
|Number of Tenements,
|Pay annually for labor,
|Consume annually lbs. of Cotton,
| " " " Wool,
| " " " cords of Wood,
| " " " lbs. of Starch,
| " " " Oil Soap,
| " " tons of Coal,
| " " galls. of Olive Oil,
| " " " Sperm Oil,
| " " cubic feet of Gas,
|Manufacture " yd's of Cloth,
| " daily " "
Hon. George B. Upton, was the first Agent of these Mills, left Nov., 1845, and was succeeded by Wm. P. Newell, Esq., who left March 1., 1853, and was succeeded by Waterman Smith, Esq., the present Agent.
Upon the same canal, below these mills, and upon Granite street, was the old printing establishment of this company. The main building was built in 1845, was 300 feet in length, 60 feet in width, and 6 stories in height.
In 1850 an addittion [sic] or L, was added, extending south from the main building, 225 feet in length, 60 feet in width, and six stories in height. The building for engraving, and containing dye stuffs and chemicals, and the Counting rooms of the printing establishment were east of the main building, while the Madder Dye House was north of the main building.
|Paid out annually for Drugs,
|10 Printing Machines.
|Printed Annually De Laines,
||37,500 " |
| Annually Cottons,
||3,462,678 " |
||12,000 " |
|No. of Tenements, 36.
The first Superintendent was James Peacock an Englishman, who left in 1848. The establishment then passed under the management of Wm. P. Newell Esq. the Agent of the De Laine Mills.
In Dec. 1852, John P. Lord, Esq.--the former clerk of the establishment, was appointed Superintendent of the Printing Department and continued as such to 1853. Under his management, the establishment was enjoying unwonted prosperity. But on the 22d of September, about 5 o'clock in the morning, the main building was discovered to be on fire and in less than an hour was in ruins. The fire took in the Dry Room, near the centre of the building, and having been subject to a high temperature for years, walls, ceiling and timbers had become of the most combustible nature.
By the greatest exertions, the counting, engraving and store rooms were saved, and the Madder Dye House and Boiler House. The loss by the company was estimated at $125,000 and was fully insured.
July 15, 1855, one half of the largest mill was destroyed by fire. The loss was estimated at $271,353,00. Both of these buildings were re-built forthwith in the newest and most improved manner, and are now in perfection of arrangement, machinery, and appointments generally, equal to any in the world.
The view given herewith, is the South front, as seen from the railroad, while approaching Manchester from Boston, or from the bridge of the N. H. Central railroad, which crosses the Merrimack river a quarter of a mile below the Print Works. The graceful proportions of the buildings rendered prominent by being painted a light color, attracts the notice of the traveler as the train "breaks up," preparatory to stopping at Manchester.
The ground plan of the Printery is in the form of a capital H, the two wings being severally two hundred, and three hundred feet long, three and four stories high, and built of brick. The main body connecting the wings, and containing the printing machines, is a fire proof structure, of three stories, one hundred and sixty, by one hundred and sixty-five feet, the floors resting upon arches of masonry, supported by iron beams and columns.
In the back ground are seen the mills belonging to the Company, which supply the Print Works with their various fabrics for printing and dyeing, consisting of Mouslin de Laines, barages, cashmeres, Persian cloth, calicoes, &c. The ordinary production of the works is,
Mouslin de Laines, Daily, 35,000 yds.
Calicoes, " 20,000 "
Print Annually, 14,000,000 "
Value $2,000,000 "
They are able to increase the amount readily, to 80,000 yards per day, during seasons of the year when the demand for the fabrics is greatest.
Mr. Lord was succeeded as Superintendent of the Printing Department, by C. H. Dalton, Esq., who commenced his charge of the establishment, January, 1, 1854. Under his care the department more than sustains its former reputation, and the goods printed at this establishment, in neatness of design, and beauty of colors, are doubtless superior to any produced in this country.
The officers for 1856, are
OLIVER DEAN, President.
CHARLES AMORY, Treasurer.
J. S. SHANNON, Clerk.
|OLIVER DEAN, }
DAVID SEARS, }
J. C. HOWE, }
GEORGE HOWE, }
NATHAN APPLETON, }
WM. AMORY, }
S. R. PAYSON. }
ALHN Hillsborough County