Charter of Derryfield.--Difficulties at Chester.--Rev. Moses Hale.--Rev. John Wilson.--Rev. Ebenezer Flagg.--Arrest of Campbell and Tolford.--Chester consents to setting off a part of her territory to form Derryfield.--Londonderry objects.--Notified of Petition.--Pays no attention to it.--Again notified and a town meeting called.--Vote.--Derryfield chartered.--Charter.--Description of township.--"Chester Old Line."--"The Peak."--"Derry Old Line"--Organization of the town.--First town meeting.--Second town meeting.--Laying out Highways.--Old Style and New Style.--Value of Money.--Old Tenor and New Tenor.--Contemplated armed possession of the Coos Country.--Proceed to examine and survey that country.--Indians become exasperated.--Determine upon retaliation.--Attack Stark and his party on Baker's river.--Stark and Eastman carried to Canada.--Run the gauntlet.--Ransomed.--Sabatis and Plausawa at Canterbury.--Capture two negro slaves.--The Province still determined to take possession of Coos. Indians remonstrate.--Committee mark a road to Coos.--Sabatis and Plausawa killed at Contoocook.--Bowen and Morrill put in jail.--Jail broken open and they released.--Indians made an attack at Stevenstown.--Meloon and family taken.--Company ordered to Stevenstown under Capt. Webster of Derryfield.--The Roll.--Meloon and wife sold to a French Priest.--Ransomed.--Great Earthquake.
The people in the immediate neighborhood being so successful in obtaining grants from the Masonian proprietors, and Charters from the Governor and Council, the subject began to agitated among the people of Amoskeag, upon the ungranted lands called Harrytown, of obtaining chartered privileges. The territory was altogether too small for a township, but the subject was broached of severing portions of the neighboring townships of Chester and Londonderry, uniting them with Harrytown, and thus forming a township. It was a very opportune time for such a project. There had existed for years a great deal of excitement in the adjoining town of Chester between the English Congregationalists and the Scotch Irish Presbyterians in relation to the settlement of a minister. As early as 1730, the people of Chester settled the Rev. Moses Hale as their minister. But he being a Congregationalist, was the minister of a part and not of the whole. The Presbyterians were disinclined to hear him preach, or to pay taxes for his support. He left in 1734. The Presbyterians then settled the Rev. John Wilson as their pastor, and in 1738 built a meeting house for their accomodation. In 1736 the Congregationalists, who were a majority, succeeded in settling another minister, the Rev. Ebenezer Flagg, though not without the most strenuous opposition on the part of the Presbyterians. The Presbyterians were taxed for Mr. Flagg's support, and of course refused to pay their taxes assessed for such purpose. The majority of course were equally determined that they should pay them, and the Collector arrested two of them, James Campbell, and John Tolford, and committed them to the jail in Exeter. A tedious lawsuit ensued, and in the end the Presbyterians won their case, and in 1740 each Society had the privilege by Charter, of holding their own meetings, and paying their own ministers. As a usual result of religious feuds, the most bitter enmity existed betwixt the parties and continued for years. Accordingly when the subject was broached of setting off the south west section of Chester, for the purpose of forming a new township, a majority of the people favored it, as the most of the people upon the lands proposed to be separated, were Scotch Irish Presbyterians! And at the meeting of the town of Chester, holden March 28, 1750, there was an article in the warrant, "to see if the town would vote, that a certain parcell of land laying at the south west corner of the town containing four miles and a half in length, and two miles and three quarters in width: begining at the south west corner of the 134th lot, in the fourth division, and running four miles and a half to the North East corner of the 71st lot, in said division, then Westward to the head line of the town, may be adjoined with part of Londonderry, and the lands about Amoskeag not incorporated into a parish or otherwise, as the town shall then think and judge best."
"It was voted that the land may be set off as a parish, upon the following conditions, to wit; That any person who has land (which) falls within said tract, never pay any taxes for the same until they make settlement upon the same, and that this vote shall be of no effect unless they obtain a grant of the Governor and Council, for to be incorporated into a parish, taking in this Amoskeag, and a part of Londonderry, as set forth in a plan presented at the meeting of this day."
"Capt. John Tolford, Archibald Dunlop, William Crawford, Robert Wilson, descents againts the foregoing; because it cuts off part of the parish already set off by the general court, and further cuts them off from a privilige to their own land."
But the people of Londonderry were not so favorably disposed towards the project, and took no action upon it at the annual meeting. Nevertheless, the petition was presented to the Governor and Council, on the 17th day of July, 1751, of Thomas George, Abraham Merrill and others, praying for a charter, for the proposed township.
The Council record shows the following action by that body upon the petition.
"Portsmouth, 17th of July, 1751.
Upon reading the petition of Thos. George, Abraham Morrill and others, praying to have the inhabitants of a tract of land, lying partly in Chester, partly in Londonderry, and partly land not heretofore incorporated, lying between those towns and Merrimack River, incorporated, and the Inhabitants thereon invested with the privileges of a Town &c., and it appearing by a vote of the Town of Chester, that they had consented so far as they were concerned; but Londonderry not having signified their consent; Ordered, that the Town of Londonderry be notified hereof that they may shew cause if any they have; why the prayer of the said Petition, may not be granted on the first of August next, and that the petitioners serve the Selectmen or Town Clerk of Londonderry with a copy of the petition and this order."1
This notice was duly served doubtless, but the people of Londonderry seem to have taken no legal notice of it. There was no meeting of the Inhabitants called upon the subject, but when the Governor and Council met, Capt. Samuel Barr of Londonderry appeared on the part of the town. He may have appeared by request of the Selectmen or the Proprietors, or by some other improper authority, but was denied a hearing. The following action was had in the Council.
"Portsmouth 1st August, 1751.
Capt. Samuel Barr appeared in Council, and desired to be heared in behalf of Londonderry, on the Petition of Thomas George, Abraham Merrill and others, relating to a Parish as entered the 17th July last, but his power of appearing being insufficient, and he praying a further time to notify the Town, and to know their oppinion, &c; Ordered, that the affair of the said Petition be suspended till the first Tuesday in September next, and that the sd Town be notified accordingly and show cause if any they have why the prayer of the sd Petition should not be granted."2
Upon this, noticed was again served upon the town of Londonderry, and on the 12th of August, a warrant was posted calling a town meeting on Wednesday the 28th inst., the 2d article of which was as follows:
"To see what they will do in regard to a petition presented by Thomas George, and one Merrill, with others, to have a strip off the side of this town to make a new parish at or near Amoskeag."3
At the meeting on the 28th of August, the following action was had on the 2d article in the warrant.
"Voted to grant the prayer of the petition of Thomas George and one Merrill with others, this far; (viz.) begining at the pine tree No. 134, and run south a mile into Derry township and then a west line or point to Derry town line, providing that they of the new parish or town to be incorporated, shall not rule our land till settled, also that John McMurphy Esq. is to appear at Court to see that the thing may be done according to this vote."
Upon the meeting of the Governor and Council on the first Tuesday of September (the 3d inst,) the parties appeared and no serious objections being made on the part of Londonderry, the Governor was directed to grant a charter, which was as follows:
LS. "Province of New Hampshire.
George the second by the grace of God, of Great Britian France and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith, &c., and to all whom these presents shall come.
GREETING:Whereas our loyal subjects, inhabitants of a tract of land within our province of New Hampshire aforesaid lying partly within that part of our province of New Hampshire called Londonderry in part, and in part Chester, and in part of land not heretofore granted to any town within our province aforesaid, have humbly petitioned and requested to us that they may be erected and incorporated into a township, and infranchised with the same powers and privileges, which other towns within our said province by law have and enjoy; and it appearing to us to be conducive to the general good of our said province, as well as of said inhabitants in particular, by maintaining good order, and incouraging the cultivation of the land, that the same should be done; Know Ye therefore, that we of our especial grace, certain knowledge and for the incouragement and promoting the good purposes and ends aforesaid, by and with the advice of our trusty and well beloved Benning Wentworth, Esq., our Governor, and Commander in Cheif, and of our Council of our Province of New Hampshire aforesaid, have erected and ordained, and by these presents for ourselves and successors, do will, and ordain, that the inhabitants of a (the) tract of land aforesaid, shall inhabit and improve thereon hereafter butted and bounded as follows; viz; Beginning at a pitch pine tree standing upon the town line, between Chester and Londonderry, marked one hundred and thirty-four, being the bounds of one of the sixty acre lots in said Chester, being the South West corner of said lot, thence running south into the township of Londonderry one hundred and sixty rods to a stake and stones, thence running west to Londonderry North and South line, thence running South upon Londonderry line to the Head line of Litchfield to a stake and stones, thence running upon the head line of Litchfield to the Bank of Merrimack river, thence running up said river, as the river runs, eight miles to a stake and stones, standing upon the bank of said river, thence running East South East one mile and three quarters, through land not granted to any town, until it comes to Chester line, thence running two miles and a half and fifty-two rods on the same course into the township of Chester, to a stake and stones, thence running south four miles and a half to the bounds first mentioned, all which lands with said bounds which lies within the townships of Londonderry and Chester aforesaid, are not to be liable to pay any taxes or rates, but as they shall be settled, and by these presents are declared and ordained to be a town corporated, and are hereby erected and incorporated into a body politick, and a corporation to have continuance forever by the name of Derryfield, with all the powers, authorities privileges, immunites and infranchises to them the said inhabitants and their successors forever, always reserving to us our heirs, and successors, all white pine trees growing and being, or that shall hereafter grow and be on the said tract of land, fit for the use of our Royal Navy, reserving also the power of dividing said town to us, our heirs and successors, when it shall appear necessary and convenient for the benefit of the inhabitants, thereof and as the several towns within our said province of New Hampshire, are by law thereof entitled and authorized to assemble, and by the majority of votes to choose all said officers as are mentioned in the said laws.
We do by these presents nominate and appoint John McMurphy to call the first meeting of the inhabitants to be held within the said town at any time within twenty days from the day hereof giving legal notice of the time, place, and design of holding said meeting, in said town, after which the annual meeting in said town shall be held for the choice of town officers, and forever on the first monday in March annually. In testimony whereof we have caused the seal of our said Province to be hereto affixed.
Witness, Benning Wentworth, Esq., our Governor and Commander in Chief of our said Province, the third day of September, in the year of our Lord Christ, one thousand seven hundred and fifty-one, and in the twenty fifth year of our Reign.
By His Excellency's Command
with advice of Council,
THEODORE ATKINSON, Secy.
Province of New Hampshire.
Entered and recorded in the Book of Charter, this third day of September 1756, pages 79 & 80.
PER. THEODORE ATKINSON, Sec'y."
This charter covered about 18 square miles of the south west part of Chester, about 9 square miles of the north west part of Londonderry, including the Peak; and the strip of land betwixt Londonderry, Chester, and the Merrimack River, called Harrytown, containing about 8 Square miles.
This charter did not embrace the whole of what was known as Harrytown, a nook at the north part betwixt Chester and the Merrimack being left ungranted. This contained about 2 square miles, was called Harrysborough, and was added to Derryfield at a subsequent period.
The west line of Chester commenced at a point about half a mile north of the Cohas a few rods east of the Nutt road, and extended north until it struck the Merrimack. It passed through that part of the city known as Hallsville, crossing the Hallsville road betwixt the house of Josiah I. Hall, and that of Dr. Z. Colburn, and so north, crossing Hanover street near Wilson's ledge, and forming the division line betwixt the city farm formerly owned by Moses Davis, and the one the property of the heirs of the late John Hall. This line at the initial point was about a mile and a half from the Merrimack, and this distance continued to lessen as it extended, until it me the Merrimack in what is now Hooksett. In the old deeds and in the language of the neighborhood it is known as "Chester old line."
The general form of Londonderry was diamond shape. Its west line commenced at a point in the present town of Hudson, and then extended north eleven miles and a half to what is known as the Griffin Tree. At this point it took a north east course, and extended three miles, forming the west side of that nook or tongue of land before spoken of, about three miles in length, and a mile in width, undoubtedly intended to conform to the course of the river, and to cover the fishing ground at Amoskeag Falls. Instead of this, the course of this nook or tongue of land was described in the charter as north north east, and upon being surveyed, it lapped over a portion of Chester. But as Chester was first granted, her limits held good, and her west line cut off about one half of this nook or tongue of Londonderry, leaving to Londonderry, a piece of land in form of a triangle, its base being about a mile in width, opposite the south west corner of Chester, extending north about three miles, and terminating in a point on the west line of Chester, on the "Kidder lot" so called, north of what is known as the Hall Farm. This tract of land was known as "The Peak." The west line of The Peak, commencing at a point about a mile north of the Cohas, at the "Griffin Tree" before named, on land now owned by Mr. Benjamin Mitchel, passed north north east, crossing the Nutt road near the house of Capt. Nathaniel Batchelder, the "old Ferry road" a little east of the house of Mr. John H. Moore, the Hallsville road, near the east corner of the "rye field," Hanover street, just east of the Spofford house, Concord street where the house stands built by Mr. Ephraim Webster, Lowell street, at its junction with the "old Falls road," Bridge street, near where the mill or Hall brook crosses that street, and terminating in a point on "Chester old line" upon the "Kidder lot" as before named.
Next east of the Merrimack river, and extending from Litchfield betwixt that river and the west line of Londonderry and Chester, to where the line of Chester intersected with the same, was the strip of ungranted land called Harrytown. This strip of land was but little more than a mile in width at any point. It was widest opposite the extreme point of The Peak. Thence northward it narrowed to a point in the distance of two miles. To the south it narrowed to a few rods in width on the south bank of the Cohas, and then again increased to sixty in width, until it reached the north point of Litchfield, upon the bank of the Merrimack, when it again began to decrease in width, and narrowed to a point in the distance of a mile and a quarter, betwit Litchfield and Londonderry.
These several portions of territory containing some 35 square miles, as well readily be seen, formed a township of very irregular shape, and its soil was as irregular and diversified as its shape.
The name of Derryfield is said to have been derived from the fact that the people of Londonderry had been accustomed to turn their cattle to pasture upon the hills and meadows within its limits.
Agreeably to the charter, on the 9th of September 1751, John McMurphy Esq., of Londonderry, issued his warrant as follows:
"Whereas His Excellency Benning Wentworth Esq., Governor, and Commander in Cheif in and over the Province of New Hampshire, with the advice of the honorable his Majesty's Council, was please to make and erect part of the township of Londonderry, and a tract of land belonging to the purchasers of John Tufton Mason Esq., right of the waste lands into a township by the name of Derryfield, and at the same time have appointed me the subscriber to hold the first meeting in said township for choice of town officers. By virtue of which these are therefore to notify and warn the proprietors, freeholders, and inhabitants of said Derryfield, qualified by law to meet at the house of Mr. John Hall in said town inholder, upon Monday the twenty third day of this instant, September at twelve o'clock. 1st to chuse their town officers, for the present year, and for so doing this shall be your sufficient warrant, given under my hand, this ninth day of September, in the twenty-fifth year of his Majesty's Reign, Anno Domo, 1751.
To Mr. John Hall of Derryfield.
The meeting was held accordingly and the record was as follows:
"Province of New Hampshire.
At a meeting of the proprietors, freeholders and inhabitants of Derryfield, assembled at the house of John Hall in said town. At this first meeting upon Monday the twenty-third day of September, Anno Dom'o, 1751, by His Excellency's direction in the charter for said township, dated September the third, 1751, according to the direction in said charter, by His Excellency's command, I the subscriber issued a notification for choice of town officers upon the afforesaid day, and the afforesaid house, and the people being assembled,
Voted, John Goffe, first Selectman. William Perham, Ditto Selectman. Nathaniel Boyd, " " Daniel McNeil, " " Elieza Wells, " " 3dly, for town clerk, John Hall. 4thly, Commissioners for assessment, to examine the Selectmen's account, William McClintock, William Stark. 5thly, for constable, Robert Anderson. 6thly, for tything men John Harvey, William Elliot. 7thly, for surveyors of highways, Abraham Merrill, John Riddle, John Hall. 8thly, for Invoice men, Charles Emerson, Samuel Martin, 9thly, for Haywards, Moses Wells, William Gamble. 10thly, Deer keepers, Charles Emerson, William Stark. 11th, for culler of staves, Benjamin Stevens 12thly, for surveyor of boards, planks, joist and timber, Abraham Merrill. Recorded by me, JOHN HALL, Town Clerk."
Thus the town was organized under the charter.
The next town meeting was holden the 16th of November following and mainly for the purpose of raising money to defray the expenses of obtaining the charter. On the 4th of November, the meeting was called by warrant of the Selectmen; the second article of which was
"2. To rase money to defray the charges that Mr. John Hall has been at in obtaining a corporation for said town and to chuse a committee for examining and allowing his accounts."
At the meeting held Nov. 26 1751, upon the second article of the warrant, it was "Voted, that Mr. John Hall be paid all the money that a committee upon the examination of his accounts shall allow to be his just due for obtaining an incorporation for this town, and the committee's names are as followeth:
This Committee made their report to the selectmen, Dec. 21 1751, as follows:
"Derryfield, December ye 21, 1751.
To the selectmen of Derryfield, Gent, We the subscribers, being a committee chosen by the town of Derryfield to examine and allow the accounts of Mr. John Hall, that we should find justly due to him for his obtaining a corporation for said town, we have set upon that affair and upon a critical examination of the accounts of said John we find that he has expended in money and time, at a reasonable, or rather moderate allowance, amounts to the sum of two hundred and fifty one pounds old tenor, and accordingly we judge it highly reasonable that he should have the said sum with all possible expedition.
Certified by us the day and year above.
At the same meeting the following votes were passed.
"3dly. Voted, to Rase 24 pounds old tenor, to be rased to paye fore Priching for this present year.
4thly. Voted, to Rase 12 pounds old tenor to defray the charges that may arise the present year."
It does not appear from the records, whether Mr. Hall's account was paid, or whether a preacher was employed, but it is to be presumed that the votes were carried out by the selectmen. The amount raised for preaching seems small in these days of high salaries, but when compared with the amount raised to cover the expenses of the town and considered in connection with the resources of the town, twenty four Pounds is no inconsiderable sum.
The selectmen went to work with energy, their principal business being to lay out highways. Roads had been laid out by Chester and Londonderry leading to Amoskeag Falls through the parts of those towns now forming a part of Derryfield, but these legally stopped short at the lines of those towns next the ungranted land known as Harrytown. They continued on through Harrytown to Amoskeag, but as far as they run through that ungranted land, they had been built by private individuals, as there was no authority to lay out or construct them short of the Legislature.
These roads although trodden for many years, of course had to be laid out anew by the Selectmen of Derryfield. Then in that part of the new town known as Harrytown, there were no roads aside from those leading from Chester and Londonderry to Amoskeag Falls, save one leading up the river from Amoskeag Falls past Archibald Stark's. Of course new roads had to be laid out and built for the accomodation of the people living off these roads, centering at the Falls. Accordingly we find that eleven highways were laid out and recorded betwixt the 3d day of October 1751, and the 22d day of February 1752. Of these, eight were in part, or wholly new roads.
In laying out these new roads, it is evident that the Selectmen intended to make the part of the town near John Hall's house, the common centre of business, as the roads mainly converge to that point. Public good or private interest may have demanded such action; at this time, it is difficult to determine which had the most control of this action. As however, there was little business done at "the centre" near Hall's, and no public building there, it is fair to presume, that private interest had as much to do, as that of the public, with the action of the Selectmen.
We are the more ready to presume this, when we see that in a few years, the laying out roads, locating the meeting house, finishing the same, and other town matters had produced so much division in the town, as toc all for the interference of the Legislature. But of this in its place.
The year 1752, is noted for the introduction of the Gregorian style of reckoning time throughout the British dominions! According to Herodotus, the Egyptians first formed the year, making it contain 360 days, which they divided into twelve months of 30 days each. Afterwards, 5 days were added, and this year was introduced into Greece by Thales. The first calendar was again corrected by Romulus, who divided the year into ten months, commencing with the first day of March, and ending with December, or the tenth month. In this time, Romulus thought the sun passed through all the seasons. His year contained only 304 days, apportioned into the months as follows, viz:
|March, 31||Sextilis, 30|
|April, 30||September, 30|
|May, 31||October, 31|
|June, 30||November, 30|
|Quintilis, 31||December, 30|
Numa Pompilius corrected the calendar of Romulus, by adding the months of January and February, adding 51 days, and making the year contain 355 days. His new months, January and February, Numa placed before March, and commenced his year with the 1st day of January. Numa's year then, consisted of twelve months, of different number of days, thus;
|January, 29||Quintilis, 31|
|February, 29||Sextilis, 29|
|March, 31,||September, 29|
|April, 29||October, 31|
|May, 31||November, 29|
|June, 29||December, 29|
The alterations and corrections of the year were in the hands of the Roman Pontiffs, and they made such sad work in the matter, that Julius Caesar the dictator, undertook the correction of the year. At this time the winter months fell back to the autumn, and those of autumn to the summer, &c. To remedy this matter, he added 23 days between the 23d and 24th days of February, and also 67 days between November and December, making that year to count 445 days. This done, he instituted a solar year of 365 days and 6 hours, and every fourth year he ordered the 24th day of February to be reckoned twice, thus adding a day to the month of February every fourth year. The 24th of February, according to the Roman calendar, was called the sixth of the calends of March, hence the year in which a day was added to February, was called Bissextile, from the Latin word Bis (twice) and Sextus (the sixth) because the sixth calends of March, or 24th of February was reckoned twice. Prior to this time, the month following June, had been known as Quintilis or the fifth month, but in honor of Julius Caesar, it was called July. The year thus corrected, is known as the Julian year. The year continued thus until the time of Pope Gregory XIII, with the exception of the alteration of the month Sextilis (or sixth) to August, in honor of the Emperor, Octavius Augustus, who entered upon his first consulate in that month.
"The Julian computation, is more than the solar year by eleven minutes, which is one hundred and thirty one years amounts to a whole day. By this calculation the vernal equinox was anticipated ten days from the time of the general council of Nice, held in the year 325 of the Christian era, to the time of Pope Gregory XIII, who therefore caused ten days to be taken out of the month of October, in 1582, to make the equinox fall on the twenty-first of March, as it did at the time of that council, and to prevent the like variation for the future, he ordered that three days should be abated in every four hundred years by reducing the leap year at the close of each century for three successive centuries to common years, and retaining the leap year at the close of each fourth century only.
This was at the time esteemed as exactly conformable to the true solar year, but it is found not to be strictly just, because that in four hundred years it gets one hour and twenty minutes, and consequently in 7200 years a whole day."
All the Catholic States of Europe at once adopted this style of reckoning time, which was called the Gregorian or "New Style." But the protestant countries were loth to introduce the "New Style," probably for no better reason than that it was a Popish origin, and they held on to the Julian or "Old Style," commencing the year with the month of March.
Of course this produced much confusion of dates, as a majority of Europe and the French colonists in America, commenced their year with the 1st day of January. To obviate this confusion, the Protestants adopted the practice of using a double date as to the year for all time betwixt the 1st of January and the 24th of March each year. Thus the catholics in writing on the fifth day of January 1752 dated their papers January 1, 1752. But the Protestants holding on to the "old style" reckoned January, February and the 24 days of March as belonging to the end of 1751, or the beginning of 1752, and they in expressing January 5, 1752, wrote it thus, January 5, 1751-2 (Seventeen hundred fifty one or two.) The confusion this produced in reading dates of the different countries, may readily be imagined. At length in 1752, inconvenience overbalanced bigotry, and after 170 years from the introduction of the "New Style" by Pope Gregory XIII, the British Parliament adjust the calendar. At this time the error had become 11 days, and the act of parliament provided that 11 days should be taken from September of 1752, by calling the 3d day of that month the 14th, thus shortening September of that year to 19 days; by commencing the year 1754 with the 1st day of January, and providing that every fourth year after there should be a day added to February. This was called "New Style" and soon became the prevailing method of reckoning time through the Protestant countries.
The want of a currency was the source of much trouble to the colonists. What little European specie was brought into the country by emigrants, or from exports, was soon sent back in the way of trade, or was kept from circulation in private coffers. Trade betwixt the colonists was carried on by barter; peltry, corn, beans &c., passing as ready cash.
The Indian currency, "Wampum," was adopted to some considerable extent. This was "of two sorts, one white, which they made of the stem or stock of the perriwinkle, when all the shell is broken off; and of this sort, six of their small beads which they make with holes to string their bracelets, are current with the English for a penny. The second is black, inclining to blue, which is made of the shell of a fish, some English call hens, poquahock; and of this sort, three make an English Penny. One fathom of this their stringed money is worth five shillings."
Such currency was taken for taxes. In fact the government was obliged to take the produce of the farmers in payment of their taxes, or get nothing. Specie was out of the question, for although Massachusetts established a mint, as early as 1652, yet it had but little effect in supplying the place of a circulating medium in New Hampshire. So that when a tax was levied, the articles in which payment was to be made were enumerated upon the tax list of the constable.
These usually embraced the most marketable products of the farmer, and it was optional with the tax payer, to pay in produce at the stipulated rates, or to pay cash; a quarter, or one third even, being abated if paid in cash.